#War in #Syria , #children, and the #refugee #crisis .

More than 1.6 million Syrian children are refugees, the United Nations says. An upsurge in fighting has complicated aid efforts and driven some families deeper into despair.  Here’s some background on the humanitarian needs in the fourth year of war in Syria.

How many people have fled their homes?

More than 6.5 million people are internally displaced (IDPs) within Syria, and 3.2 million have fled as refugees to neighboring countries.

Does the number of refugees show any sign of slowing?

No. On average, more than 100,000 Syrians register as refugees every month. Their main destinations are Jordan, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, and Iraq, though conflict in Iraq now discourages that option. The U.N. refugee agency anticipates 3.6 million registered refugees by the end of 2014.

What are the refugees’ greatest needs?

Refugees need food, clothing, and basic household and hygiene items. They need reliable supplies of clean water, as well as sanitation facilities.  Children need a safe, protective environment and a chance to play and go to school. Adults need employment options in case of long-term displacement. As winter approaches, they also will need warmer clothing and stoves and fuel for heat and cooking.

Where are the refugees living?

More than 1.1 million refugees are in Lebanon. Many have taken up residence there in communities’ abandoned buildings, sheds, spare rooms, garages, and in tent settlements on vacant land.  Conditions are often crowded and unsanitary. Even so, families struggle to pay rent for these spaces.  As of October 28, Turkey is hosting more than 1 million Syrian refugees. Iraq, facing its own armed conflict, is hosting about 220,000 Syrians.  More than 610,000 refugees have settled in Jordan, mostly with host families or in rented accommodations. About 80,000 live in Za’atari, a camp near the northern border with Syria, and about 12,400 live in Azraq, a camp that opened at the end of April.

What risks do children face?

Children are especially susceptible to malnutrition and diseases related to poor sanitation. Many suffer from diarrheal diseases and dehydration.  Because of the breakdown of the Syrian health system and lack of adequate immunization, there have been outbreaks of measles and even polio in Syria and among refugee children.  Children are more vulnerable to sexual abuse and exploitation in unfamiliar and overcrowded conditions. Without adequate income to support their families and fearful of their daughters being molested, parents — especially single mothers — may opt to arrange marriage for girls as young as 13.

What is the impact on refugee children’s education?

After more than three years of conflict, at least 3 million children have left education. For children in Syria, the reasons are many: schools destroyed or occupied by warring groups or displaced families, teachers absent or deceased, and insecurity.  For refugee families that don’t live in camps, paying rent and other expenses can make it difficult for parents to afford books, uniforms, and tuition fees for their children.  In some cases, children must give up school and start work to help provide for their families.  In Lebanon, the government has opened public schools to Syrian children, but language barriers, overcrowding, and the cost of transportation keep many refugee children out of school.

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